Ethel Waters, blues, jazz and gospel singer   12 comments

Ethel Waters (October 31, 1896 – September 1, 1977) was an American blues, jazz and gospel vocalist and actress. She frequently performed jazz, big band, and pop music, on the Broadway stage and in concerts, although she began her career in the 1920s singing blues.

Her best-known recordings includes, “Dinah“, “Stormy Weather“, “Taking a Chance on Love“, “Heat Wave“, “Supper Time“, “Am I Blue?“, and “Cabin in the Sky“, as well as her version of the spiritualHis Eye Is on the Sparrow“. Waters was the second African American, after Hattie McDaniel, to be nominated for an Academy Award.

  Early life

Ethel Waters was born in Chester, Pennsylvania on October 31, 1896, as a result of the rape of her teenaged mother, Louise Anderson (believed to have been thirteen years old at the time, although some sources indicate she may have been slightly older) by John Waters, a pianist and family acquaintance from a mixed-race middle-class background, who played no role in raising Ethel.[1] Ethel Waters was raised in poverty and never lived in the same place for more than 15 months. She said of her difficult childhood, “I never was a child. I never was cuddled, or liked, or understood by my family.”[citation needed] Waters grew tall, standing 5’9½” in her teens. According to women-in-jazz historian and archivist Rosetta Reitz, Waters’ birth in the North and her peripatetic life exposed her to many cultures.

Waters married at the age of 13, but soon left her abusive husband and became a maid in a Philadelphia hotel working for US $4.75 per week. On her 17th birthday, she attended a costume party at a nightclub on Juniper Street. She was persuaded to sing two songs, and impressed the audience so much that she was offered professional work at the Lincoln Theatre in Baltimore, Maryland.[2] She later recalled that she earned the rich sum of ten dollars a week, but her managers cheated her out of the tips her admirers threw on the stage.


Waters inducted into Zeta Phi Eta at University of Michigan

After her start in Baltimore, Waters toured on the black vaudeville circuit. As she described it later, “I used to work from nine until unconscious.”[3] Despite her early success, she fell on hard times and joined a carnival, traveling in freight cars along the carnival circuit, eventually reaching Chicago. Waters enjoyed her time with the carnival and recalled, “the roustabouts and the concessionaires were the kind of people I’d grown up with, rough, tough, full of larceny towards strangers, but sentimental and loyal to their friends and co-workers.” She did not last long with them, though, and soon headed south to Atlanta, where she worked in the same club with Bessie Smith, who demanded that Waters not compete in singing blues opposite her. Waters conceded and sang ballads and popular songs. Perhaps today best known for her blues voice, Waters then was to sing, dance, play and star in musicals, plays and movies, and later in TV; but, she returned to singing blues whenever opportunity presented. Around 1919, Waters moved to Harlem and there became a celebrity performer in the Harlem Renaissance during the 1920s.

Waters obtained her first Harlem job at Edmond’s Cellar, a club that had a black patronage. She specialized in popular ballads and became an actress in a blackface comedy called Hello 1919. Jazz historian Rosetta Reitz points out that by the time Waters returned to Harlem in 1921, women blues singers were among the most powerful entertainers in the country. In 1921, Waters became the fifth black woman to make a record, on the tiny Cardinal Records label. She later joined Black Swan Records, where Fletcher Henderson was her accompanist. Waters later commented that Henderson tended to perform in a more classical style than she would prefer, often lacking “the damn-it-to-hell bass.”[citation needed]

She recorded with Black Swan from 1921 through 1923. In early 1924, Paramount bought the Black Swan label, and she stayed with Paramount through 1924. Waters then first recorded for Columbia Records in 1925, achieving a hit with her voicing of “Dinah”—which was voted a Grammy Hall of Fame Award in 1998. Soon after, she started working with Pearl Wright, and together they toured in the South. In 1924, Waters played at the Plantation Club on Broadway. She also toured with the Black Swan Dance Masters. With Earl Dancer, she joined what was called the “white time” Keith Vaudeville Circuit, a traditional white-audience based vaudeville circuit combined with screenings of silent movies. They received rave reviews in Chicago and earned the unheard of salary of US$1,250 in 1928. In 1929, Harry Akst helped Wright and Waters compose a version of “Am I Blue?,” her signature tune.[citation needed]

Although she was considered a blues singer during the pre-1925 period, Waters belonged to the Vaudeville-style style similar to Mamie Smith, Viola McCoy, and Lucille Hegamin. While with Columbia, she introduced many popular standards including “Dinah”, “Heebie Jeebies”, “Sweet Georgia Brown”, “Someday, Sweetheart”, “Am I Blue?” and “(What Did I Do To Be So) Black and Blue” on the popular series, while she continued to sing blues (like “West End Blues”, “Organ Grinder Blues”, etc.) on Columbia’s 14000 race series.. During the 1920s, Waters performed and was recorded with the ensembles of Will Marion Cook and Lovie Austin. As her career continued, she evolved toward being a blues and Broadway singer, performing with artists such as Duke Ellington. She remained with Columbia through 1931. She then signed with Brunswick in 1932 and remained until 1933 when she went back to Columbia. She signed with Decca in late 1934 for only two sessions, as well as a single session in early 1938. She recorded for the specialty label “Liberty Music Shops” in 1935 and again in 1940. Between 1938 and 1939, she recorded for Bluebird.[citation needed]

In 1933, Waters made a satirical all-black film entitled Rufus Jones for President, which featured then-child performer Sammy Davis Jr. as Rufus Jones. She went on to star at the Cotton Club, where, according to her autobiography, she “sang ‘Stormy Weather‘ from the depths of the private hell in which I was being crushed and suffocated.” She had a featured role in the wildly successful Irving Berlin Broadway musical revue As Thousands Cheer in 1933, where she was the first black woman in an otherwise white show. She had three gigs at this point; in addition to the show, she starred in a national radio program and continued to work in nightclubs. She was the highest paid performer on Broadway at that time. MGM hired Lena Horne as the ingenue in the all-Black musical Cabin in the Sky, and Waters starred as Petunia in 1942, reprising her stage role of 1940. The film, directed by Vincente Minnelli, was a success.

Waters with Count Basie in Stage Door Canteen (1943)

She began to work with Fletcher Henderson again in the late 1940s. She was nominated for a Best Supporting Actress Academy Award in 1949 for the film Pinky. In 1950, she won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for her performance opposite Julie Harris in the play The Member of the Wedding. Waters and Harris repeated their roles in the 1952 film version of Member of the Wedding In 1950, Waters starred in the television series Beulah but quit after complaining that the scripts’ portrayal of blacks was “degrading.” She later guest starred in 1957 and 1959 on NBC‘s The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. In the 1957 episode, she sang “Cabin in the Sky.”[4]

Despite these successes, her brilliant career was fading. She lost tens of thousands in jewelry and cash in a robbery, and the IRS hounded her. Her health suffered, and she worked only sporadically in following years. In 1950-51 she wrote the autobiography His Eye is on the Sparrow, with Charles Samuels, which was adapted for a stage production in which she was portrayed by Ernestine Jackson, in which she wrote candidly about her life. She explains why her age has often been misstated, saying that her mother had to sign a paper saying she was four years older than she was, and that she was born in 1896. In her second autobiography, To Me, It’s Wonderful, Waters states that she was born in 1900.[5] Rosetta Reitz called Waters “a natural … [Her] songs are enriching, nourishing. You will want to play them over and over again, idling in their warmth and swing. Though many of them are more than 50 years old, the music and the feeling are still there.”

  Private life

Waters is the great-aunt of singer-songwriter Crystal Waters. Waters often toured with Billy Graham on his crusades.[6] She died on September 1, 1977, aged 80, from uterine cancer, kidney failure, and other ailments in Chatsworth, California


Posted March 1, 2012 by pennylibertygbow in Blues / Jazz, Singer

12 responses to “Ethel Waters, blues, jazz and gospel singer

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  1. You are the hardest working blogger in the bloggersphere. Keep on doing what you do.

    • ohhh, thanks Jueseppi, i am gonna agree with you on one thing. This was a tenacious undertaking and at times, I did not think I could possibly do it singlehandley, but 700 posts later, I’m on my way. Maximum Research like I have never quite done before, then coordination and timelines, it was hard Jueseppi. Thank you so much for recognizing that!

      • I am very intrigued and curious about you. I read your “about me”, and i was floored to find you are not Black, or African American. Irish. 100%. So tell me how a 100% Irish woman gets to the point of being as interested in Black American History as you are.

      • Well, I’m just going to say it like it is, I grew up one of 12 kids, very very poor, socially ostrasized when we were young. The only refuge i ever had was the public library and even there we were banned from taking books home with us. The first book I ever read was Harriet Tubman, and I was hooked. It wasnt’ so much her lifestyle I could identify with but with the feeling of being treated unimportant, if you will. I never got to study history in College, I had to make money to pave the way for my younger brothers and sisters, so consider this the greatest love of my life coming to pass. I hope that answers your question.

      • I have always found that ‘saying it like it is” proves to always be the best way, most times the only way. Yes, you answered my question beautifully Ms. Liberty. I will be reading everything you write.

      • Thanks Jueseppi, and please refer me to your friends if you would. I have no friends on twitter, I would like to network – any way you can help me I would appreciate it! I’m gonna call you J. Thanks J.!!!! We are going to be long term friends!

      • I shall follow you on twitter, and yes i would be honored to refer you to the people I know on Twitter & Facebook. I will call you Penny. Friends is a very good thing Penny. Enjoy your Thursday….I think I will go to bed now….But I’ll be back in a couple of hours.

      • ok J. Thank you so much!!!!

      • I can, and do, appreciate your blog the most of any blog, even more than my own. You are single handed doing education on a subject lacking in America….the education of the Black American population on it’s own history.

      • Thanks Jueseppi, now let’s hope I can get this implemented into the schools, i want parents of African American children to have a support center to go to so they can educate their children on their rich history. No matter what, every child should have a sense of himself, it is a rite of passage. So, so far my numbers have been coming from search engines, I’ll need support.

      • I agree with you 500%. You are unique, and different.

      • Thank you Jueseppi, I really like that! kindly, Penny

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